Where You Give Credit
Bibliographies, footnotes and parentheticals
You give credit in two ways: within the paper in footnotes or parentheticals and at the end of a paper in the bibliography.
- DEFINITION: A list of sources used in a research paper.
It is composed of a list of citations. Citations include the author, when listed on the work, the title, and the publication information of a work. The bibliography usually appears at the end of a research paper. Depending on the style used, it may be called bibliography, references, works cited, or other terms.
WANT TO SEE some citations?
> Unit 4 > A Primer on Databases and Catalogs
> Unit 5 > The Great GALILEO
Footnotes and parentheticals
Most styles use either footnotes, endnotes, or parentheticals. Footnotes are placed at the bottom of a page, and endnotes are placed on a separate page at the end of the paper. Most word processors will do these for you automatically.
A parenthetical is a brief reference in parentheses at the end of a sentence referring the reader to a full citation in the bibliography. The name 'parentheticals' comes from the fact that this type of citation is enclosed in brackets which is another word for 'parentheses'.
Both footnotes and parenthicals are ways in which the researcher gives credit within a research paper. For more information on footnotes and parentheticals, refer to a style manual.